Charles Darwin Biography, Childhood, Education, Family, Facts, Natural Selection,Theory, Books, Quotes, Evolution Theory, Darwin University, Life Achievements

Charles Darwin BiographyCharles Darwin

Charles Darwin is the same Darwin we wrote about at the very beginning of our site; he is the author of the scientific theory of human appearance. Charles Darwin claimed that humanity is developed from monkeys. According to his theory monkeys are most manlike creatures and they were the first creatures existed in the world, and with the lapse of time, they evaluated to homo sapience. This theory became known and accepted all around the world; children at school were learning the evolution of monkey to homo sapience and lap it all up. Different confessions were against Darwin and proclaimed him an atheist who neglects the religious values and believes. According to the words of some specialists who learned the life of the scientist, Darwin refused his theory himself and came to believe in God when close to death.

Still, no matter on that Darwin’s theory of humanity’s evolution remained predominant for a very long period of time, moreover, there are scientists and people who still concerns Darwin’s theory as the only right one. If so, Darwin has a right to be called as a contributor to humanity’s progress and be considered as the significant personality of the humans’ history. Before Darwin represented his theory it was widely believed that the humanity was created by God, and after Darwin represented his theory people divided into two almost equal groups: the followers of the religious theory and the followers of Darwin’s theory, and agree it’s not that insignificant fact, to convince a good half of the world of your rightness is not that easy task.

Institutions Related To Darwin

Athenæum – London’s aristocratic club, featuring outstanding scientists, writers, artists, and social figures. Darwin was elected a member of the club in 1838. Darwin’s letter to Lyell, August 9, 1838 (Life and Letters, Volume 1, p. 294) shows that initially Darwin was not a member of the club (“I was fraught with the expectation of writing a rejection”), but that the club evenings had the opportunity to meet eminent London scientists. she likes it.

Cambridge College Colleges – are more or less independent corporations, somewhat similar to faculties: they have their own buildings (study and residential buildings), faculty, and others. Every college has started from a medieval institution and retained its historical name, such as the colleges of Christ´s, Jesus, Trinity, and others, providing the student with an apartment and catering. Darwin studied at Christ´s College.

A case of Prayer – Teacher G. Case at Prayer House on High Street. Darwin’s mother was a member of the Unitarians and went to Mr. Case’s prayer house. Darwin went there with his older sisters as a little boy, but both he and his brother were baptized and determined to belong to the Anglican Church.

Fitzwilliam Gallery  – The Art Gallery of Cambridge University.

Royal Medical Society – Edinburgh Medical Students and Alumni Association, founded in 1734.

Royal Society – an English research institution whose role can be compared to the Academy of Sciences. Founded in 1660 as a free association of English scientists.

Moor Park – a resort near Farnham in Surrey County (southwest of London). Staying at Moor Park in the late 1850s, Darwin went to Gilbert White’s tomb.

The Pliny Society – Edinburgh Student Science Club, Darwin became a member on November 10, 1826. The Society was founded in 1823 and went to sleep in about 1848 (“Edinburgh Weekly Dispatch”, May 22, 1888).

Ray Club – The Cambridge Club, founded in 1837 to continue Henslow’s Friday evenings in 1836.

Werner Society – a parallel organization set up to counter the excessive nomenclature of the Royal Society of Science, the Royal Society of the Royal Society of Edinburgh. The Werner Society was more focused on agriculture and industry by attracting research.

Darwin’s Relatives And Relatives

Josiah Wedgwood (1730-1795) – Darwin’s grandfather, one of the early capitalists who built a company through which his own name became a world-famous brand (in the porcelain industry). With wealthy Wedgwood, a wealthy Etruria pottery shop, Darwin had close friendships with Grandpa’s Erasmus days.

Erasmus Darwin (1731-1802) – Ch. Darwin’s paternal grandfather, an important predecessor of evolutionary theory from the 18th century. Formulated in a four-tiered treatise, “Zoonomy or the Laws of Organic Life, 1794–1796”, a genealogy-related generation system, making it fifteen years before Lamarck’s famous evolutionary theory. Zoonomy – the laws of animal life. Erasmus Darwin’s works – nowadays hard-to-read “Zoonoma” [Zoönomia], with heroic rhymes, where the gods and nymphs are invariably called, “Botanic Garden” and “Phytology” – were immensely popular. Charles Darwin published his grandfather “Life of Erasmus Darwin, 1879”.

Susannah Wedgwood (1765-1817) – mother of Darwin. Ch. Darwin was rather fond of his mother, his sisters rather his father.

Josiah Wedgwood (1769-1843) – Member of Parliament, Ch. Darwin’s mother’s brother. After a trip to Beagle, her daughter Emma Ch gave her. Married to Darwin. (Cohabitation was then tolerated and customary, for example, Charles’s sister Caroline married her son Josiah, Emma’s brother.) The son of the founder of the Etruria factory, Josiah Wedgwood.

Kitty (Catherine) Wedgwood (1774-1823) – younger sister of Josiah Wedgwood (Charles Darwin’s Uncle) and Susannah Wedgwood (mother of Charles Darwin).

Erasmus Darwin jun (1804-1881), Ch. Darwin’s older brother. Acquired medical education in Edinburgh and London, and a bachelor’s degree in medicine from Cambridge, but never worked as a doctor. His father’s rich inheritance enabled him to live a peaceful life in London. In the 1860s, Darwin usually stayed in London at his brother’s house on Queen Anne Street. The close friend of Erasmus was T. Carlyle.

William Darwin Fox (1805-1880) – studied religion at Cambridge as did Ch. Darwin and supervised his latest scientific work, focusing mainly on insect research.

charles darwin (1809-1882)

Francis Galton (1822-1911) – English anthropologist, founder of eugenics and variation statistics. Partly contributed to the formulation of eugenics was the genetic intersection of the F. Galton family, which gave good results. He himself was analogous to Ch. Darwin also has a grandson for Erasmus Darwin. After the death of her first wife, Mary (grandmother of Darwin), Erasmus married again, and her second wife, Elizabeth, became a grandmother of Galton.

Ch. George Darwin (1845–1912), Darwin’s son, who further developed his cosmic insights and described the evolution of the Earth-Moon system. He calculated that after 4 to 5 billion years, the Moon has been able to stop the Earth itself. The Earth’s day is 55 times longer than it is today. The Moon period is the same, and both celestial bodies are turned to one another with the same side.

Francis Darwin (1848-1925) – Ch. Darwin’s son, carrying on his father’s scientific tradition, held botanical training in Cambridge, was the Secretary of the Royal Society and President of the British Association. In 1913, a knight was beaten. Editor of Life and Letters of Charles Darwin (1887).

Euphemia Wedgwood – married in 1873 with TH Farrer and was her second wife.

Henrietta Litchfield – Published in 1904 by Emma Darwin, a private print printed by Cambridge University Printing House.

RB Litchfield – son-in-law.

Nora Barlow (1885-1989) – Ch. Daughter of Darwin’s daughter Horace (1851-1928). He studied genetics at Cambridge, and his name is a popular bunch of greyhounds amongst gardeners [Aquilegia Nora Barlow]. In 1958, the original handbook of the grandfather “Memory Stick” (Autobiography) was printed.

Darwin And Women

From summer 1827, Darwin went to Woodhouse, where William Owen’s daughter Fanny lived, with whom he was riding, darling, hunting birds, playing billiards and flirting. The same happened in the next two summers. There was a cooling of relations, after Darwin’s bachelor’s degree in February 1831 finally. In September, Fanny announced the marriage; Darwin decided to leave England.

After a world trip, Darwin married his senior onutmother Emma, his old-fashioned sister Caroline, in turn, was put on the brother of Emma (both of Uncle Josi’s children helped to organize the world trip) and the offspring had genetic defects. The issue of gene sequences was important in the family, and Erasmus Darwin’s second famous grandson, Francis Galton, founded the eugenics of special science of breed improvement.

Censorship In The Family

When “Memory Images” began to be printed by relatives after the author’s death (1887), his wife, Emma, was deprived of both religious discussions and many ironic scriptures; the complete text appeared only in 1958, and in a curious way it was overcome by the Russian translation (1957).

The “Memory Cannons” addressing the children directly imitates the romantic poetry of Wordsworth, Coleridge, but Darwin actually wrote “Memory Images” to his children; such writing could not have been printed at that time without major problems, as evidenced by the subsequent censorship.

Charles Darwin’s life

Two Hearts Of A Big Family

Charles Darwin was not only a renowned scientist but also a loving husband and an extraordinary father.

Charles Darwin (1809-1882) originated from the family of English scientists and doctors. So it seemed natural for him to study medicine and religion. However, he discontinued medical science after his first course because he did not tolerate human suffering in anesthesia operations (ether was introduced in 1846). Besides, he was afraid of blood, he couldn’t even hear the word.

Already at university, he was attracted to science. Young Darwin collected and studied plants and beetles, and he was interested in geology. He was a true naturalist on his sailboat “Beagle” for five years (1831-1836). By studying the collected materials, Charles came to the conclusion that natural selection is the main factor in the change of plants and animal species. As a thorough and cautious scientist, he published his evolutionary theory in 1859 on the basis of 20 years of research.

Daddy or Spouse?

After studying the material collected during my trip to the microscope for two years, Darwin was struck by a frightening thought: is his future life just a job, a job, and a job? Like a patriotic lady in a stinky London-ridden house…

Maybe you should choose a comfortable home, a fireplace, a lovely woman, kids?

The 29-year-old scientist put forward the arguments for and against the letter. He wouldn’t be able to travel anymore, and would not indefinitely refer to the wise men, yet the idea of getting married was over.

Charles was married on January 9, 1838, to Emma’s older mother-in-law, Emma (1808-1896). They had almost grown up together. Emma was beautiful, wise, but so far the suicide was repelled. He played the piano and taught at a local Sunday school where he used his own storybooks as readers.

Emma was fascinated by her husband. He didn’t know anyone as sincere, open, good-natured, and talkative as Charles. Emma herself was restrained.

On December 29, 1839, their first child, William or Doddy, was born. Suddenly, Charles discovered a great child lover. Doddy called beauty and intellect a miracle.

After Annie was born in 1841, Charles and Emma, who had grown up in the countryside, found that the gloomy London was not the place for the children. They started looking for a suitable country house on the highlands of Kent. The house was supposed to be so close to London that it could go to the city in one day.

Eventually, they decided to make a village in Down. It took only two hours to get to London by train. Their house, Down House, was home to a great estate, with cows, horses, pigs and smaller flocks kept here. Darwin continued keeping the animals and the children were very close to nature and animals.

Hearty home rules

Emma believed in eternal life and the union of souls after death. Charles did not deny the existence of God, but the divine story of creation and the advancement of souls.

Emma tried to understand the man’s discoveries, but she was afraid that she might be wrong. Because she wasn’t particularly sure about her verbal expression, she wrote to her husband – though they lived together – about her feelings, suspicions, and fears. He thanked him for the love that made his life happier every day. The woman was most afraid that they could never belong to one after death. Charles kept these letters and also wrote Emma’s own home papers.

Reading was part of everyday life. The house was full of books, magazines, newspapers. In parenting, both Emma and Charles were very free. They did not force the children but encouraged them to think. The father did not direct the offspring to the research, but when the children came to ask something, he explained it very thoroughly.

There was a lot of disorder at Darwin’s home because the children’s games were not beaten. What’s more, Dad himself invented all kinds of games. The children could trample on the furniture because they were more expensive than some items. They made a fuss and yell, but the dad working in the office didn’t have to be banned. In spite of free breeding, all of the little Darwin later came to life well.

Good luck and tears

Emma’s life consisted of pregnancy, childbirth, breastfeeding and the expectation of a new child. Mary, who was born in Down House, lived for only three weeks, but the fate of six younger siblings was happier. In 1843, Etty was born, followed by George (1845), Betty (1847), Frances (1848), Leonard (1850) and Horace (1851). Then there was a five-year break, with several interruptions in pregnancy. Because Charles wanted another baby, Emma was still pregnant when she was 48 years old. Born in 1856, Charles Waring Darwin was small, late in walking and talking, but seemed intelligent. She wept and rarely laughed, just grimacing. The father played with him as he had done with the other children, kept him and pampered him. But the child died.

By this time, William, who was already 17 years old, had a camera with which he made many family pictures. Later, it was decided by the photos that Charles junior had Down syndrome. This disability was discovered in 1866 by psychiatrist John L. Down.

The death of Charles junior was actually the third in Darwin’s family. In 1851, Annie, their extraordinarily talented daughter, died at the age of ten. Based on Charles’ detailed letters, it was later decided that Anniel was tuberculosis. Robert Koch discovered a tuberculosis spike in 1882.

The parents did not talk about their daughter’s death. His name became taboo. However, Charles Annie wrote a letter in all the details. The father could not go to the grave of his daughter for twelve years. The memory was so painful that he did not enter the church anymore.

Charles’s greatest fear was that another child could die. And he said, “Nothing is worse than the children are sick.” 1850-1860. many infectious diseases spread throughout the years. Darwin’s children were suffering from sarcoids, chickenpox, whooping cough. Etty miraculously survived diphtheria. During the illness, both parents worked with her: her mother read books, her father played board games. Such a commitment seemed a little too much for her daughter.

End to work

As a young man, Charles was very healthy. After marriage, however, he was occasionally caught up in grief, difficulty concentrating, dizziness, vomiting, indigestion, eczema. Even the father of Darwin’s doctor could not make the diagnosis. Finally, Darwin turned to one of the medical practitioners who worked on health sources in Malvern. Charles was there for three months and became healthier.

At the end of the 1870s, Darwin was highly respected in the scientific community. In 1877, the University of Cambridge awarded him an honorary prize. At the same time, he was grimaced over a wide world and spread a cartoon about him as a human ape.

Although health was very bad, Charles continued his experiments and correspondence with scientists. He was 73 when he said his heart.

Emma was left with a wheelchair due to arthritis. For the winter, he moved to Cambridge, where Darwin’s three sons worked. Emma, children, and grandchildren came to Down House for the summer months. In the autumn of 1896, when Emma was preparing to drive to the winter apartment, her departure time quietly arrived.

Darwin As The Beginning Of a Scholar

charles darwin

Twenty years ago, on July 1, 1858, two famous scholars, Lyelli and Hooker, were briefly briefed on the meeting of the City of London’s Society, which only publishes two pages of the company’s written work. The scholar was a scholar, not a young man for years – he was fifty years old – who had lived in his village for twenty years, and did not leave the weather almost. Again, he didn’t think he needed to attend a meeting: he even wrote an explanation for his friends’ demand and direct compulsion. The explanation touched upon the dry technical issue of ‘generations of species’; the name of the scholar was – Charles Robert Darwin.

Two years passed, and the thoughts that were published there on the two pages flew all over the air of the scholars, the name of Darwin, which so far has only been respected by a few special scientists, zoologists and geologists (zoologists and geologists), now in the mouth of every naturalist, although this name was called with a wide variety of feelings.

Twenty years passed and it is hardly educated to find the skull at this time without the name; but, more or less, there is hardly any educated or even semi-educated person who, knowing or not knowingly, or perhaps not falling for himself, would not create, whether these guesses are attracting or not, half-hearted or hostile. The name and doctrine that comes with him is no longer the property of the scholars but of the minds of all. In the history of science, there are exhibitions where a certain doctrine, a certain image of the name of his or her childbirth, has kept that person’s name abstract for a whole stream, would have found a whole field of knowledge – no similar exhibition can be found. In many book lists, you will now find titles: zoology botany, geology, next to the new name – Darwinism. The scripture of the new branch of science has grown so great that one person can hardly overcome; they are also beginning to appear in peculiar magazines, where this teaching alone is promoted and educated.

This movement of thoughts was not alone in the area of natural science; it also extended to other fields of knowledge; Scientists, historians, scholars, linguists, moral teachers take part in it. As always with the questioning, which is of general interest, there is also a voice of passions attached to the cold voice. There was a quarrel, as is not known in the history of scientific thought. The most controversial thoughts, the most inseparable thoughts, collide with the sharp throw. The sober assessment was confronted with raging respect; the public and fair wonder that the spirit had revealed was poorly hidden from the petty envy; all-encompassing worshiping and assaulting shrinkage, meaningful conclusions and metaphysical evidence, direct accusations of anger, and similar accusations of spiritual conviction, laughter, mockery, Enchanted prayer words, and hoaxes – in a word, all that awakens the enemy’s blind anger and the harsh evil of his friends can confuse themselves to make it difficult to end this battle. And in the midst of this blend of opinions, rumors, and rumors, only one man was very calm – and that man was – Darwin, who was guilty of the move.

Whose idea also to support, to whom to hold, must be understood from the outset that the magnitude of the struggle and the passion that both sides are expressing is one thing: the world has a new idea of casting down the profound thoughts of morality and morality, and the whole generation – maybe not just a single one – you can develop this idea by expanding or narrowing it as long as it takes a full and versatile shape, as long as the new knees mean the limits.

Let’s look at what the main purpose of this doctrine lies in the everyday necessity of the mind of man as the echo, whether he can be considered to be teaching, what has been done, what he has to explain, and how much dissipation of the doctrine of the disciple who teaches without sending.

First, we learn about the activities of the scholar before the meeting of the Linné Society, for which his teaching became familiar. It’s hard to find a life that would be so poor in terms of events. Darwin was the son of a wise physician and the grandson of a well-known writer, Erasmus Darwin, and was born on 12 February 1809 for a new calendar; he spent two years at the University of Edinburgh, then four at Cambridge where he received his bachelor’s degree. Immediately after graduating from university, in 1831, he began a cruise around the globe with the ship Beagle. For five years, the trip took place and was a school for Darwin, which increased his wealth of knowledge in a particular way, especially for watching, guessing and explaining the phenomena of nature. There were several peculiar exploratory works that stand out for the qualities that have been marked, and the daybook, what appeared in the two giving and from that point of view is that it is simple, natural and understandable in its description; this book made him more familiar with those who love serious reading than his scientific work. Darwin turned back to England, took a laugh, and settled in his mansion in the downtown of Down, where he still lives, almost never leaving the weather. (Darwin also died at Darling on 7th April 1982, April 1882.) Translator.) However, special studies could not take the rest of his free time, which brought Darwin’s peaceful life directly to the individual. To explain what his friends in Linne were proposing in 1858, the document was annexed, showing that the thoughts he had published here in 1839 were ready in full form, but did not expect them to be published before twenty years. After the 1859 year. Darwin’s reviewers should never forget that they are a man who has twenty years of thought on his thoughts before he published them.

Life Struggles On The Biological Front

In America, children are taught to teach theory instead of darvinism that does not attempt to explain life on Earth. Charles Darwin was a kind and gentle person. Yet he is represented as an Antichrist. The latter was compared to the blasphemy of Darwinism in Ohio, Kansas, USA. A third of the members of the local school government want to reduce the proportion of natural choice in the biology curriculum. When their intent goes through, Darwin’s theory begins to stand in the textbooks alongside a mindset called intelligent design theory.

The controversy has become so acute that a week ago, a professor of radiology at Ohio State University published a page-sized announcement in the New York Times for money, advocating unrealistic theories of heat, sun, and space. For example, he claimed that the Sun is composed of a rebellious fluid and is not a gaseous sphere, as scientists have thought over the last century.

Critics of ID theory claim that this is a form of hidden creationism. Creationists believe that God created the living entities from scratch. The movement of the ID does not attempt to explain the emergence of life on Earth, and many of its advocates believe in evolution. Some even recognize the natural selection offered by Darwin. Yet they deny that the natural choice was the only factor that was able to develop life from frog to human.

Creationists also claim that some forms of life are too complex to construct and that they could not have been created by attributes added by random selection. It is easy to imagine how the giraffes had a half-shorter neck, and with natural selection, it slowly grew longer. But the eyes of the animals – what benefits would the giraffe have from the half-eyed? Darwin saw the emergence of such doubts. He admitted that the complex construction of the eye refers to the existence of a rational creator. But he suggested a way to develop a self-contained optic tree step-by-step from a light-sensitive nerve.

The ID movement has succeeded in attracting attention, as old suspicions are presented in a new package. Michael Behe, a biochemist at Lehigh University, invented the concept of “infinitely complex” for phenomena that could not have occurred as a result of development. He brings, for example, a phenomenon like the mechanism of human blood coagulation. In his “Darwin’s Black Box”, Behe says there are over a dozen proteins involved. It is quite impossible that something so complex could have occurred in one mutation during the same mutation. At the same time, development could not take place on the basis of single proteins as the process would not work if either or none of them were missing.

In turn, Behe was thinking of Kenneth Miller, a biologist at Brown University. In “Finding Darwin’s God”, Miller states that studying the blood clotting mechanisms of different species can still help to understand how a person developed his own step by step. If Miller is right, this does not mean that the ID movement is pointless. ID proponents have caused fruitful doubts, and in science, a useful misconception is almost as valuable as a useful truth.

Unfortunately, Ohio’s curriculum reformers do not want to add the ID theory to school textbooks, not because it generates fruitful doubts. They present it as an independent theory. One of the reasons for the success of the movement is that it was decided not to take a view on how the species emerged. Thus, the ID became a broad cover for everything that would fit from old-fashioned creationism to New Age movement.

It is also doubtful whether the ID can overcome Darwinism in the offer of spiritual comfort. Some movement leaders place God in a very long time in evolution. William Dembski, a philosopher, and professor at Baylor University, proves in a mathematical language that the natural choice was to have some kind of stimulus from the outside in order to create the present life. But he admits that this motivation might have been something quite abstract.

But in the good old Darwinism, the possibility of an initial, abstract and supposedly divine impulse is left. No one knows how DNA started to stand up or how the universe evolved in such a way that it was possible. It is not at all odd to believe that the original conditions set the mind at some supreme purpose, whose goals have not yet been fully manifested. See what spiritual values evolution has brought with you today: consciousness, love, conscience, ethics.

The ID theory was first presented by William Paley, an eighteenth-century English theologian. He claimed that if someone finds a clock in the forest, he assumes that someone has ever made it. Similarly, anyone looking at the world with an objective look should see that it has certainly been a creator.

Creationism began to spread in America in the 1960s. Recent research by Scientific Americans showed that as many as 45 percents of Americans believe the world is created by God about 10,000 years ago. Yet, scientists have proven that the universe is 13 billion years old.

However, President George Bush announced his evolutionary campaign during his election campaign: “Until now, it has not been proven how God created the world.” Recently, in England, it was discovered that in one of the Christian schools there was a scientifically justified alternative to creativity in Darwinism. ID supporters may be right that some sort of divine power has rolled the evolutionary ball and the principles that this power outlines keep the ball in play. But they are not right in attacking Charles Darwin when making these statements.

To Darwin’s Spokesmen?

Darwin's Spokesmen

A dozen families in the US-based city of Dover recently appealed to a federal court claiming that the so-called “intelligent design theory” or “neo-creative theory” that affirms American politics is not equivalent to science. The plaintiffs pressed against the Constitution, which states that no law must support religion. In our powerless attempts to understand the mysteries of life, most of us have sought contact with some religious system. Some embrace some traditional world religion, others associate themselves with cults or other eccentric theories.

One year ago, Andrei Arhipov, a scientist from Ukraine who came out of Ukraine, was trying to make it clear to the world that the human race was made of DNA that was thrown into Earth over the alien spacecraft. Arhipov, a respected professor at both Stanford and Kharkov University of Radio Energy, claimed that the first and only chance of life on Earth came in the form of microbes or DNA through the atmosphere. Usually, such theories are not taken very seriously, at least not in the circle of scientists. Yet, Arkhipov’s idea was to rush the research community, and his theory was highlighted in the recognized astronomical publication The Observatory. The collision of science and religion began in the 19th century. In a recent book, America’s leading geneticist, Dean Hamer, writes that spirituality is the greatest legacy of mankind: when religion is based on culture, beliefs, and traditions, spirituality is a genetic instinct inherent to all living entities.

The Nobel laureate James Watson, one of the discoverers of the DNA molecular structure, has called the greatest contribution of science to the knowledge that the more the world evolves, the more the most supernatural probability is reduced.

Man – Machine?

Many people believe in the existence of God. Even in the case of scientists, it is sometimes possible that the more adventurous ideas given by science bring them a step closer to the almighty. Yet we are often confused because we have no idea what God is or who is. For example, I have the unmistakable knowledge that complex human life is more than the result of some cosmic accident or chemical reaction. I still think that even if one person’s life is more than just a blink of an eye, it has a definite idea or purpose. I will probably not experience something that would confirm or dispel my beliefs during my lifetime, but I am reassured by the knowledge that it will not be so.

Today, however, we are faced with the problem that Darwin’s well-known evolutionary theory has begun to (re) throw a spouse. The main argument this time is that complex and filigree human life requires some intervention of higher intelligence. Namely, supporters of neo-creative theory want to explain the beginning of life with something more than darvinism, according to which all life on Earth is shared by common ancestors, the development of which derives from arbitrary mutations and dark natural choices. They don’t like knowing that we are mere machines that maintain humanity, and we do our daily editions, create a family, and make choices only as small parts of the overall process. The atoms created during the Great Bang are no longer given exhaustive answers to all questions about the beginning of life.

From our God, monkeys are not

By the way, the evolution theory has once been recognized in part by the Pope John Paul II himself, saying that Darwinism is not just a hypothesis, but much more. Evolutionary theory has repeatedly proved itself in different disciplines, but the same cannot be said about creative theory. The fact that God cannot be involved in any scientific experiment or used to identify any truth or formula is a convincing argument. So why do many American parents still want to make room for God at school?

A few months ago, President Bush took a surprising stance: creation theory should be built alongside evolutionary theory in the American education system! Bush stressed that two opposites should be taught within the same school program. It seems that the Creator has returned to US politics and that neo-creative theory is today the spokesman of the right and faithful America.

This theory attempts to retrieve evidence of evolution and religion at the expense of science. It is a slogan that is sold to the head of true science. I don’t think the biggest question of all time should be in the hands of some pseudoscience. The consciousness of God requires even a little belief and so it remains, forever. Yes, children should have the choice to study different world religions in different gradient schools. But teaching creative theory as true science is great, if not ridiculous, step back to the past, which manipulates the principle of the inalienable state of the state and the church.

Darwin’s Contribution To Developmental Psychology

The founding honor of the scientific approach to developmental psychology is often attributed to Charles Darwin. Although his main interest was an evolutionary theory, he may also be regarded as the first developmental psychologist because in 1877 he published a short article describing the development of his son Doddy in his infancy. He was impressed by his son’s playfulness and emotional expression.

The study of his infancy son had to help Darwin understand the evolution of innate forms of human communication. As we will see later, many of the basic concepts of development – such as the idea that development must be understood as the child’s constant adaptation to the environment – come from Darwin and his evolutionary theory. Darwin’s second contribution was the application of systematic research methods in development studies. The philosophical or non-scientific speculations of earlier theorists, such as Locke and Rousseau, were replaced by the actual monitoring of children’s development, and this laid the foundation for scientific discipline.

The biological basis of developmental psychology was established in the period from 1859 when Darwin published his evolutionary theory to the first decades of the twentieth century. Darwin’s evolutionary theory placed man decisively in the midst of nature and raised the question of evolutionary continuity or lack of it between man and animals. The effect of the Darwinian revolution also manifested itself in the interest of the people in the biological origin of human nature.

Evolutionary explanations, of course, put the emphasis on the changes brought about by time – both in the life of the individual and in the ultimate timescale of evolution. The Darwin Books “Generation of Species” (1859), “The Descent of Man” (1871), and “Expression of Emotions in Humans and Animals” (1872) raised several questions about the beliefs of the human mind in the evolutionary past. The challenge posed a challenge to the relationship between individual development (ontogenesis) and species evolution (phylogeny).

Charles Darwin Work

Darwin is also an author of the natural selection theory. That is the theory that based on the idea of surviving of the strongest one. This theory was also a component of the theory of humanity’s evolution. Darwin was such an accurate scientist that he doubted his theories himself, and so was looking for the weaknesses of the theory. That gave him an opportunity to prove his theory in public and give worthy and argument response to those who mentioned facts that may disprove Darwin’s theory. Soon Darwin was acknowledged as a significant and skillful scientist and so was decorated with “Pour le merite” order instituted for decorating for scientific and literary merits. Till the very and of his life Darwin never left scientific researches of something new, some of those who knew him closely say that it was a result of his constant fear of oldness. Darwin wasn’t afraid of death; he was afraid of growing old, sick and helpless. He died April 19th at the age of 74 and was buried at West Mister Abbey next to the burial vault of Newton.

Darwin And The Scientists

Darwin And The Scientists

Baer and Darwin

Stephen Jay Gould (2002) attributes the evolution of the concept to the contemporary meaning of the first conscious use of Herbert Spencer, who in turn refers to his inspiration in the autobiography of Karl Ernst von Baer’s works: “I came into the Baer Law, which expresses the course of development that every plant or animal passes through – change homogeneity towards heterogeneity. This Baer postulate, expressing the law of individual development, drew my attention to the fact that the law under which the sequential developmental stages of an individual organism evolve is the same law that develops the development lines of all kinds of organisms. ”

Thus, the term evolution comes in its present meaning, though through Spencer, precisely the main postulate of Baer’s progressive specialization. In the 19th century, the term Darwin and Wallace used the evolution of the superhuman. For the first time, the term “evolutionary” appeared as the last word of Darwin’s “Generation of Species”. Thomas Huxley, one of Darwin’s most popular promoters of Darwin’s views, who used the word evolution often since 1868, contributed to the introduction of this concept, and in 1878 wrote an article in the British Encyclopedia.

Darwin And Mendel

TV presenter:

If Mendel was to go back there, more or less the same time Charles Darwin, who might be more familiar with the people, was also active. He is the creator of evolutionary theory. How were these two men aware of each other’s work? Did Darwin Mendel know anything?

University of Tartu researcher Mart Viikmaa :

Darwin certainly didn’t know Mendel. Mendel sent Darwin a snapshot of his article, which was later found to be unbreakable from Darwin’s bookshelf – he hadn’t read it. Since Mendel’s works in the scientific literature were practically not discussed, nothing else could be known about him. Perhaps it was only Gregor Mendel who had one plant hybrid, but at that time there were many other plant hybrids.

Darwin was firmly in the position of mixed generosity prevailing at that time. Darwin’s theory was therefore in a serious state of crisis, as the dilution of the inherited changes during the crossing with normal or unchanged individuals had to gradually disappear. That was one problem. Secondly, Darwin himself made inquiries to explain the nature of fertilization in the late 1860s and found that at the time of fertilization several pollen was present at plants. So this was a completely different view from Mendel’s experiments. As Mendel felt Darwin’s idea of the species, he mentioned it in his article.

Darwin And London Natural History Museum

Charles Darwin sits in the classicist hall of the Museum of Natural History in London, South Kensington, and looks at how men from all corners of a broken empire drink coconut and bark the hamburger.Of course, Darwin is no longer alive, he is a marble, and men have not come here to look at Darwin’s Mother Nature’s diversity. There are 70 million items in the halls and storerooms of The Natural History Museum, the world’s largest and most truthful one, all of which must speak of the wonderful wealth of the world created by God. The rich nature of the Earth is, but not so rich, that one would not be able to enrich him further.

Darwin’s struggle for life

For 120 years, Charles Darwin has traveled marble to the staircase of the main hall of the Museum of Natural History – where his boots seemed too big for some visitor – but down to the floor – where the African elephant stuffed him out of the struggle for life. In search of the best habitat, Darwin has now come down beside the coffee table, looking down at the visitors’ beer bottles.

Pyotr Kropotkin’s Darwinian Effects

Pest Kropotkin’s “Mutual Assistance” [P. Kropotkin, Mutual Aid. London, 1902]. This rather large book looks at forms of mutual assistance not only in various human societies but also in animals.

The origins of Kropotkin are evolutionary and based on Darwin’s doctrine, pole making with his later interpreters, especially Thomas Huxley. Originally, Darwin saw the combination of two factors in the formation of species: one of them called it to struggle, the other co-operation. In “The Descent of Man”, he also gives examples of how many advanced species exchange cooperation for a long time; it is these kinds of species that are unlikely to meet the difficult conditions unexpectedly. Unfortunately, Darwin’s observations quenched the monomeric tendency of later followers to collect only examples from the animal kingdom that point to a ruthless struggle for life between and within species. The massive piling of one-off examples has been largely driven by the desire to align human society with other biological species. To find in nature “

In Chapter 1 of his book, Kropotkin writes: “As soon as we begin to study animals – not only in laboratories and museums but also in the woods and prairie, steppe and mountains – we will immediately notice that, although there are a huge war and destruction between different species, especially different animal classes. , there are at the same time, as much or perhaps even more mutual support, mutual assistance and mutual protection in the same species or at least in the same community, friendliness is just as much a law of nature as a mutual struggle. However, if we rely on an indirect test and ask Nature: “Who are the adapters – those who are constantly fighting with each other, or those who support each other?”Mutual assistance animals are undoubtedly the most adaptive.” The following is a concise assessment, which is a good expression of Kropotkin’s basic stance: “If we take into account the countless facts that can support this view, we can safely say that mutual assistance is the Animal Life Act as much as a mutual struggle. but, as an evolutionary factor, it is likely to be much more important as it promotes the development of habits and characters that ensure the survival and further development of the species with the highest level of prosperity and living for the individual, so that it consumes the least energy. “we can safely say that mutual assistance is a living animal law as much as a mutual struggle, but as an evolutionary factor, it is likely to be much more important as it promotes the development of habits and character that ensure the survival and further development of the species with the highest level of prosperity and living for the individual, so that it requires the least energy. “we can safely say that mutual assistance is a living animal law as much as a mutual struggle, but as an evolutionary factor, it is likely to be much more important as it promotes the development of habits and character that ensure the survival and further development of the species with the highest level of prosperity and living for the individual, so that it requires the least energy. “

In two chapters (pp. 1-75) Kropotkin brings many examples of his own and other scientists’ observations of nature; The grip reaches the bees and ants to the hunting communities of predators. In fact, such examples are familiar to today’s reader from animal films (documentaries can spend days and weeks on the seabed, observing, for example, how each other can cope with sponge and snail). Despite the continued Huxley ideology of film distribution in the media, the phenomena of mutual assistance in cadres are well influenced – apparently, it is inevitable that animal life will be carefully monitored. However, in the description of Kropotkin, it is peculiar how he still refers to examples of the most collective beings, such as ants, which prove the importance of an individual initiative in a mutual assistance system.

In the contemporary sense, the biological part of the book is followed by an anthropological part (mutual help among “wildlife” and “barbarians”). Here, Kropotkin polemizes with 17th-century thinker Thomas Hobbes, who thinks that people first lived in a “state of nature”, a “war of all against all”. (Previously, this controversy is related to the fact that Huxley also took over Hobbes’ views of a primitive man.) Based on modern ethnology, Kropotkin rejects the “natural country” aside; Since the later anthro-polarism no longer leaves any duplicity in these matters, it does not need to be discussed further. “The savage is not the ideal of virtue, as he is not the ideal of” savagery. “But primitive man has one attribute, what has been preserved and elaborated by the needs of a harsh life struggle – it identifies its existence with the existence of its tribe; and without this attribute, mankind would never have reached the present level “(p. 111). In discussing this, Kropotkin takes a position that is obviously different from both Hobbes and Rousseau’s classical imaginations, revising the relationship between the modern man and the” savage “or” barbarian. “

“Where we would go, we find the same companionship, the same spirit of solidarity. And when we try to penetrate into the darkness of the past, we find the same tribal life, the same human connections for mutual support, no matter how primitive they are. Darwin was quite right when he saw a person In his social qualities, his further evolution is the main factor, and Darwin’s vulgarisms are completely wrong when they claim the opposite “(p. 110). It can be said that this statement contains the logical credo of Kropotkin and of any deeper anarchism.

General Characteristics

Charles Darwin’s research creation forms an integrated system of ideas that seeks to explain all the phenomena of life within a single theory. Evolution theory grew out of geological research. Further biology and psychology studies are already based on evolutionary theory.


Darwin was interested in the queuing of six topics:charles darwin

  1.  Nature Story
  2. Geology
  3. Zoology
  4. Evolution
  5. Botany
  6.  Psychology

Natural History

The natural theme was Darwin’s greatest attention at the beginning of the 1831-1836 round-the-world voyage, where he made observations and collected specimens as soon as the opportunity opened, without having had any major work hypothesis before him. Darwin collected a lot of specimens of animals and plants, and made extensive flora and fauna observations, but, apart from the origin of individual biogeographic speculations and speculative species, he did not draw any theoretical conclusions in these areas. His observations and observations have been summed up by Darwin in the Beagle World Travel Diary. However, evolutionary ideas include the later editions of the diary, in which Darwin has written more mature ideas.

Geological Observations

The first geological observations that Darwin had the opportunity to reach with Beagle in South America offered the possibility of theoretical advancement directly on the basis of field observations. One of Darwin’s greatest scientific interests was the derivation of the rock formation from geological facts about a region. Here, past experience of geological excursions with Adam Sedgwick was helpful, as was the book by Charles Lyell, “The Basics of Geology”, which provided the key to interpreting the geological development of the regions under investigation. However, in Botany and Zoology, Darwin still had little facts for major generalizations; in these disciplines, too, there were no concepts of such generalization as geology. It is, therefore, no coincidence that Darwin’s first theoretical scientific work is in the field of geology. His work since 1842, which explains the development of the reefs in the sinking of the coral islands, refers to the coral reef researchers to date. The study of volcanic islands (1844) was also a remarkable work.


Darwin created his own natural scientist renames with monographic zoological studies. Darwin’s zoological work is primarily related to the systematic investigation of Cirripedia in 1846-1856. In a letter to Thomas Huxley in 1854, he wrote: “I have been conquered by one idea – the tortoise – in the morning and in the evening” Twisted crabs are peculiar carnivores with some of the earlier scholars considered to be molluscic. One of Darwin’s interest in the tortoise group – tarragon – can also be found near the shore of the Gulf of Finland, where they form a white layer at the waterfront on stony stones. Crustaceans are also known as attachments to vessels and whales. In addition to modern times, Darwin also studied fossil tars.

Evolution Theory

The Darwinian Evolutionary Idea, which in its mature form reached the reader in 1859, “The Origin of Species”, whose first sketches go back to the post-travel versions of Beagle’s Diaries since 1837, began to take a clearer line in the early 1840s. It is referred to by handwriting works (“Skits” from 1842) and “Essay” from 1844, issued after Darwin’s death. In addition to geological and artificial selection data and literature, the ’emergence of species’ is mainly based on two species: Beagle Travel in 1835. September to October visited Galapagos Islands and home England. There are no mammals in the Galapagos Islands biota, and the giant varans living there resemble their primitive ancestors. Darwin was also impressed by the variability of the shape of the Galapagos wings, which led to thoughts of their descent from a common ancestor. Building on the ideas that emerged abroad, Darwin was also able to look at the nature of his home, freshly exploring and describing many new and unexpected connections. Of the “species emergence”, Darwin’s 6 editions were published: 1859, 1860, 1861, 1866, 1869, and 1871, the latter being the most well-known and translated.


Darwin’s botanical studies began to appear after the completion of zoological studies in the mid-1850s and the first edition of “Generation of Species” in 1859 After moving to the house in 1842 near London, Down, he made experiments and observations mainly in his garden and greenhouse. Many researchers have highlighted the skills of Darwin as an experimenter in these works, but most of these works have been made in the context of a wider context of evolutionary ideas. For example, work on orchid fertilization with insects and insect-producing plants is about researching the revolution of plants and animals, together with evolution.


At the end of life, Darwin was fascinated by psychological studies, whose problems also grew out of evolutionary ideas. Darwin became interested in behavioral evolution. Behavioral arguments are very important in “The Descent of Man” Darwin’s greatest work on psychology, originally intended as a chapter on “The Descent of Man,” was published in 1872 as “Expression of Emotions in Man and Animals”.

charles darwin

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